Works Cited

Baum, Paull F. Anglo-Saxon Riddles of the Exeter Book. Durham: Duke University Press, 1963.

           Includes translations and commentary of a selection of the Exeter riddles. The puzzles are categorized under headings such as 'domestic            subjects,' 'chiefly christian,' 'music' and 'writing.'

Crews, Frederick. The Random House Handbook. Ed. Steve Pensinger and James R. Belser, 6th ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992.

           Includes everything a student needs to know about Modern English grammar and essay writing. Very well organized and easy to use,                     making it a good reference tool.

The Exeter Anthology of Old English Poetry. Ed. Bernard J. Muir. Vol. 1: Texts. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1994.

            Volume one contains all of the Exeter texts, including the riddles. The second volume has extensive commentary and a complete bibliography.

Finnie, W. Bruce. The Stages of English: Texts, Transcriptions, Exercises. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972.

            Focuses on the development of the English language, including both history and grammar. Also includes practice texts and exercises, as well as             a record that you can listen to in order to get a sense of what Old English sounded like.

Mitchell, Bruce and Fred C. Robinson. A Guide to Old English Sixth Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2001.

            A wonderful introductory textbook that teaches Old English grammar in detail. Also includes texts to translate, an extensive glossary and                         information about Anglo-Saxon history.

Traugott, Elizabeth Closs. The History of Old English Syntax. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Incorporated, 1972.

            Focuses on the history and development of English sentence patterns, including a detailed section on Old English syntax and grammar.

Wyatt, A.J. Old English Riddles. Cambridge: D.C Heath & CO. Publishers, 1912.

            A charming text which includes translations of all the Exeter riddles, along with commentary and solutions. A small glossary is also provided.

Note: All translations on this website were completed by myself and edited by Dr. Savage.

 

Works Consulted

Borden, Arthur R. Jr. A Comprehensive Old-English Dictionary. Washington: University Press of America, 1982.

           A very user-friendly text, but it should be noted that entries are not as detailed as the Bosworth-Toller dictionary.

Toller, T. Northcote and Joseph Bosworth. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976.

            The standard in terms of Old English dictionaries and is thus highly recommended. Provides detailed information in an accessible format.

 

Images

Anglo-Saxon Ring c. tenth century. Warwickshire County Council, Warwickshire            <http://www.warwickshire.gov.uk/Web/corporate/pages.nsf/Links/64D04E9E2AC76A5480256A960046ED12>.

Anglo-Saxon Spear Head. Warwickshire Museum & Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, Warwickshire            <http://www.windowsonwarwickshire.org.uk/spotlights/anglo_saxons/default.htm>.

Borchert, Andreas F. Corbel of the North West crossing pier in Boyle Abbey, County Roscommon, Ireland. Wikipedia, September 17th            1997 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corbel>.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

Cuckoo. Animal Spirit Graphics <http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/4076/index1.html>.

Fir0002, Peter. Red sunset near Swifts Creek, Australia. Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunset>.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
Garbutt, Simon. Twelfth century corbel from the church of Saint Mary and Saint David in Kilpeck, Herefordshire, England. Wikipedia,            1989 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corbel>.
This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder. This applies worldwide. Subject to disclaimers.

Garlic. Frost Street, New York. 24 Feb. 2005 <http://www.froststreet.net/>.

Hartog, Ton den. Quill-pen. Computer museum tonh, Netherlands <http://www.tonh.net/museum/quillpen.html>.

Kennis, Dirk. Eighth century Anglo-Saxon mount, four two-legged horned beasts. Works of Art, Antwerp <http://www.dirk-kennis.be/b1.html>.

Kennis, Dirk. Fifth - sixth century Anglo-Saxon brooch, frontal mustached face. Works of Art, Antwerp <http://www.dirk-kennis.be/b1.html>.

Kennis, Dirk. Ninth century Anglo-Saxon strap-end. Works of Art, Antwerp <http://www.dirk-kennis.be/b1.html>.

Kennis, Dirk. Sixth century Anglo-Saxon Wrist Clasp. Works of Art, Antwerp <http://www.dirk-kennis.be/b1.html>.

Lawton, Simone and Ivor Simone. Reproductions of Anglo-Saxon Helmets, various centuries. Dawn of Time Crafts            <http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Gallery/4774/>.

Linzalone, Joseph. seventh Century Anglo-Saxon Gold Pendant. Wolfshead Gallery, Ridgewood <http://www.wolfsheadgallery.com/html/arch.htm>.

Onions. Spanish Idaho-Eastern Oregon onions <http://www.ieoonions.com>.

Page from the Beowulf Manuscript. Loyola College, Maryland <http://www.evergreen.loyola.edu/~fbauerschmidt/HN240_00_images.html>.

Reconstruction of an Anglo-Saxon ship. Loyola College, Maryland <http://www.evergreen.loyola.edu/~fbauerschmidt/HN240_00_images.html>.

The Strickland Brooch, c. ninth century. The Immingham School Department of Art and Design, Immingham <http://tlfe.org.uk/imart/index.php>.

Sudeterre, Guillaume de la. Reproduction of Anglo-Saxon Buckle, intertwined animals. Order of the Leather Mallet            <http://www.evangel.edu/personal/hallh/web/medievalstuff/index.asp>.

Sutton Hoo Helmet. Permission granted by Mike Markowski. Original Source:            http://people.westminstercollege.edu/faculty/mmarkowski/212/6/sut4.JPG. Wikipedia, Sutton Hoo            <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sutton_Hoo>.
This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder. This applies worldwide. Subject to disclaimers.

Swan. Free for All Pictures <http://212.84.179.117/list.htm>.

Waterhouse, John William. The Siren. Private Collection. Waterhouse: The Art and Life of John William Waterhouse. Julia Kerr. January 2000.            <http://www.jwwaterhouse.org/>.

 

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