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How to Avoid Plagiarism

  1. Make sure all the text in your site is in your own words.
  2. Where you quote something make sure the quotation is clearly marked by quotation marks or an indented paragraph.
  3. Make sure you have a note that indicates where the quotation came from.
  4. If the text you are quoting is from an online source put a link in the bibliography to the online source. (The idea is that you have a reference in the bibliography should the site disappear and not just a link from the quotation.)

1. Example of a short quotation inline with your text.

In the event that you want to include a short quotation you should put it in quotation marks and have a note to explain where it came from. Here is an example:

As Nielsen writes, "All traditional text, whether in printed form or in computer files, is sequential..." while a hypertext is nonsequential. [Nielsen, 1995]

In this example the quotation is woven into a sentence of mine. At the end of the sentence I have a link that connects to a named anchor at the bottom of the page in the bibliography. The link could connect to a different bibliography page. Here is the code:

As Nielsen writes, "All traditional text, whether in printed form or in computer files, is <I>sequential</I>..." while a hypertext is nonsequential. [<A href="#nielsen">Nielsen, 1995</A>]

The code for the bibliographic item is:

<A name="nielsen"></A>Nielsen, Jakob. <I>Multimedia and Hypertext; The Internet and Beyond</I>. AP Professional: Mountain View, California,1995.

Note how there is an <A> tag with the parameter NAME which names the anchor. This allows the link after the quotation to jump to the right named anchor in the bibliography below.


2. Example of a long quotation that is indented in your text

In the event that you want to include a long quotation you should indent the paragraph using the "Blockquote" tag. Here is an example:

Nielsen defines hypertext in Multimedia and Hypertext ,

All traditional text, whether in printed form or in computer files, is sequential, meaning that there is a single linear sequence defining the order in which the text is to be read. ...

Hypertext is nonsequential; there is no single order that determines the sequence in which the text is to be read. [Nielsen, 1995]

Of course we can question whether all traditional texts are really sequential. Is an encyclopedia sequential?

In this example the quotation is set off by being indented and in a smaller size. There are no quotation marks but there is a citation reference at the end that links in the same way as the first example to the bibliographic item.

<P>Nielsen defines hypertext in <I>Multimedia and Hypertext</I> , </P>

<BLOCKQUOTE>

<P>All traditional text, whether in printed form or in computer files, is <I>sequential</I>, meaning that there is a single linear sequence defining the order in which the text is to be read. ... </P>

<P>Hypertext is <I>nonsequential</I>; there is no single order that determines the sequence in which the text is to be read.

[<A href="#nielsen">Nielsen, 1995</A>]</P>

</BLOCKQUOTE>

<P>Of course we can question whether all traditional texts are really sequential. Is an encylopedia sequential?</P>


3. Referencing a WWW site

The important information to capture about a WWW page or site that you are referencing is:

  • The name of the author or organization that is responsible for the information
  • The title of the site (and the title of the page you are referencing if it is different)
  • The URL for the page or site - this should be visible not just in a link
  • The date you accessed the information
  • The date the information was created or last modified if there is a date stamp

Example

Here is an example of a reference to a WWW site:

Gore, Al,"The Technology Challenge: How Can America Spark Private Innovation?" in ENIAC 50th Anniversary Celebration. http://www.seas.upenn.edu:8080/~museum/goreaddress.html . Accessed: November 7th, 2000. Site last modified: March 26, 1996.

Note that I put the title of Al Gore's address in quotation marks and I used the <cite> tag for the name of the site. The <cite> tag is visually equivalent to italics.In many cases the name of the page or site that appears on the page will be different from what appears in the <title> tags in the <head>. Choose the title that appears to best represent the object. Note also that I put both the date that I accessed the site and the date it was last modified by the author.


Bibliography

Gore, Al,"The Technology Challenge: How Can America Spark Private Innovation?" in ENIAC 50th Anniversary Celebration. http://www.seas.upenn.edu:8080/~museum/goreaddress.html . Accessed: November 7th, 2000. Site last modified: March 26, 1996

Neilsen, Jakob. Multimedia and Hypertext; The Internet and Beyond. AP Professional: Mountain View, California, 1995.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Site created by Geoffrey Rockwell, 2003