"Rondos I, III and V", Opus 3 by Jane Savage:
Motive Development and the Musical Narrative



by Nadine Burke



ENDNOTES

1. Deborah Hayes. "Jane Savage (ca. 1760-ca. 1830)," in Women Composers - Music through the Ages: Volume 3 - Composers Born 1700 to 1799 Keyboard Music, eds. Sylvia Glickman and Martha Furman Schleifer (New York: G.K. Hall & Co., 1998), 127-29. (back)

2. Ibid., 128. (back)

3. Joel Galand, "Form, Genre, and Style in the Eighteenth-Century Rondo," Music Theory Spectrum - the Journal of the Society for Music Theory, Vol. 17, No. 1, (Spring 1995): 60. (back)

4. Ibid., 37. (back)

5. Deborah Hayes, "Jane Savage (ca. 1760-ca. 1830),". 127.(back)

6. Ibid. 127.(back)

7. Nicholas Temperley, "The London Pianoforte School," The London Pianoforte School 1766-1860, ed. Nicholas Temperley (New York; London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1987). pp. x-xii. (back)

8. Leonard G. Ratner, Classic Music - Expression, form, and Style (New York: Schirmer Books, 1980), 255. (back)

9. "Rondo,"The Norton/Grove Concise Encyclopedia of Music revised and enlarged, ed. Stanley Sadie, (New York; London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1994) 684. (back)

10. Susan McClary only refers to rondos and ritornellos as examples of the clashes that occur between music theory, cultural studies and feminist criticism in "Paradigm Dissonances: Music Theory, Cultural Studies, Feminist Criticism," Perspectives of New Music,(Annandale-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Perspectives of New Music, Inc., ) Vol. 32, No. 1, (fall 1962): 76. (back)

11. Leonard G. Ratner, Classic Music - Expression, form, and Style (New York: Schirmer Books, 1980), 255. (back)

12. According to Green, the typical use of the rondo is within the genres such as "sonatas, chamber music, symphonies and concertos." Form in Tonal Music, 151; Berry discusses the rondo as found in individual works in "Rondo," 122. (back)

13. I also refer to various theorists and historians such as Wallace Berry, William E. Caplan, Paul Fontaine, Douglass M. Green, Leonard G. Ratner, Peter Spencer and Peter M. Temko: Wallace Berry, "Rondo," Form in Music (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1966); William E. Caplan, "Rondo Forms - Seven-Part Rondo," Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven (New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998); Douglass M. Green, Form in Tonal Music - An Introduction to Analysis (New York; Chicago; San Francisco; Toronto; London: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1965); Paul Fontaine, "The Simple Rondo," Basic Formal Structures in Music (New York: Meredith Corporation, 1967); Ratner. Classic Music - Expression, Form, and Style; Peter Spencer and Peter M. Temko, A practical approach to the study of form in music, (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1988). (back)

14. Green, Form in Tonal Music, 163; Galand extrapolates Schenker's explanation of a rondo from Schenker's publication Free Composition. "Form, Genre, and style in the Eighteenth-Century Rondo," 13. (back)

15. Berry, Form in Music, 156. (back)

16. Caplan, "Rondo Forms - Seven-Part Rondo," 235; Berry describes these five and seven-part rondos as pre-classical examples in "Rondo," 125. (back)

17. Galand, "Form, Genre, and Style in the Eighteenth-Century Rondo": 30. (back)

18. Ratner discusses the typical length of rondo themes as eight measures in Classic Music, 249; Spencer and Temko also discuss the length of the rondo themes in the same way in A practical approach to the study of form in music, 172. (back)

19. Berry, Form in Music, 131; Fontaine, "The Simple Rondo." 88; Ratner, Classic Music, 249. (back)

20. Green, "The Rondo," Form in Tonal Music, 154. (back)

21. Ibid, 154. (back)

22. Galand, "Form, Genre, and Style in the Eighteenth-Century Rondo"; McClary, "Paradigm Dissonances: Music Theory, Cultural Studies, Feminist Criticism." (back)

23. McClary, "Paradigm Dissonances: Music Theory, Cultural Studies, Feminist Criticism," 75. (back)

24. Galand, "Form, Genre, and Style in the Eighteenth-Century Rondo," 27-52. (back)

25. Ibid, 30. (back)

26. Ibid, 36. (back)

27. Ibid, 42. (back)

28. Caplin, "Rondo Forms," 231. (back)

29. Green, "The Rondo," Form in Tonal Music, 31; Stefan Kostka and Dorothy Payne also caution the reader that "[i]t is best to use motive only to refer to those musical ideas that are "developed (worked out or used in different ways) in a composition" in Tonal Harmony with an Introduction to Twentieth-Century Music (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1995), 158. (back)

30. Allan Cadwallader and William Pastille, "Schenker's High-Level Motives," Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Spring 199): 120. (back)

31. Ibid, 140. (back)

32. Ibid, 132. (back)

33. In the expository rendition (A), the first phrase - melody and harmony - are in the treble clef; the harmony line is lower, written in the bass clef. The second repetition (A2) is the same with minor articulation changes and chord positions in m. 36. Although the melody remains the same in the first repetition (A1), the harmonic line is reversed: the first half is in the bass clef and the second half is in the treble clef. The melody line is lowered in the second phrase in the third repetition (A3). (back)

34. Green. Form in Tonal Music - An Introduction to Analysis, 109. (back)

35. Fontaine, "The Simple Rondo," 90, 92.; Peter Spencer and Peter M. Temko also discuss the variation techniques used in the returning rondo themes in A practical approach to the study of form in music, 174. (back)

36. All excerpts of Jane Savage's Rondo III are on pages 134 to 137, edited by Deborah Hayes - "Jane Savage (ca. 1760-ca. 1830)." (back)

37. All excerpts of Jane Savage's Rondo I are on pages 130 to 133, edited by Deborah Hayes - "Jane Savage (ca. 1760-ca. 1830)." (back)

38. All excerpts of Jane Savage's Rondo V are on pages 138 to 141, edited by Deborah Hayes - "Jane Savage (ca. 1760-ca. 1830)." (back)

39. Saul Novack, "Foreground, middleground, and background: their significance in the history of tonality," Schenker Studies, ed. Hedi Siegel (Cambridge; New York; Port Chester; Melbourne; Sydney: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 66. (back)

40. McClary critiques the universal and transcendental biases expressed by those who study Western music. She traces the historical development of this thought to reveal how the mid-century European culture obsesses in the production of " a truly stable self, and in the process, develops and employs ‘gendered codes of masculine versus feminine,' thus defining ‘self' in the counterdistinction to "other'." This formulation occurs when development as a "young, relatively unformed male proceeds through a series of experiences that serve to consolidate his mature identity." "Paradigm Dissonances: Music Theory, Cultural Studies, Feminist Criticism,": 69; she concludes that these beliefs are so fundamental to the Enlightened age, that they are perceived as "Truth," and not as "cultural choices or constructions." Ibid, 71. . (back)

41. Ibid, 76. (back)

42. Ibid, 77. (back)

43. Ibid, 76. (back)

 


 

Copyright © 2001 by Nadine J-M. Burke