Chart I
Rondos I, III and V, Opus 3 by Jane Savage:
Similarities and Differences


by Nadine Burke

This chart is the basis for the analysis titled Rondo Structure in the Introduction. This chart begins with William Renwick's Appendix: Rondo and Ritornello Forms in Tonal Music and analyses of rondos as described by various theorists such as Wallace Berry, William E. Caplan, Paul Fontaine, Douglass M. Green, Leonard G. Ratner, Peter Spencer and Peter M. Temko. Colour coding is used to depict the different characteristics between the rondo theme, the episodes and the coda: yellow for the rondo theme; blue for the first and third episodes, pink for the second episode indicating its development characteristic and green for the coda.

Jane Savage's Rondos I, III, and V are described in detail. Colour coding reveals how Savage departs from the traditional description. Differing descriptions are bolded to reveal how the episodes and coda are different. One particular difference is the way Savage remains in the home key in an episode in Rondo III and V instead of changing to a contrasting key. I use a deeper yellow to reveal this compositional departure from the traditional description. And when Savage changes the order of the episodes, I indicate this by altering the colour. I conclude that she makes these changes as a result of her musical narrative.

 

Conventional Description

Rondo I

Rondo III

Rondo V

A - Rondo Theme

A - 8 measures;
- in tonic key (I);
- two complimentary phrases exhibit antecedent-consequent relationships: the first ends with a half cadence (HC), the second with a perfect authentic cadence (PAC)
- functions in the same way as an exposition

A - 8 measures;
- in tonic key;
- all phrases begin with an annacrusis;
- PAC

A - 8 measures;
- in tonic key;
- PAC

A - 8 measures;
- in tonic key;
- PAC in tonic

B - First episode

B - strong contrast in character emphasized through key change, transposition of rondo melody, new material or rhythm and texture through use of scales, arpeggios, or figuration;
- uses contrasting keys closely related to the rondo theme: tonic minor or major, mediant, dominant, submediant;
- ends with a progressive cadence (i.e. HC, DC) which leads back to the rondo theme

B - 8 measures;
- changes from tonic key to dominant key;
- develops new material, especially rhythmic accompaniment; some motives from rondo theme incorporated
- PAC in dominant

B - 8 measures;
- in tonic key;
- develops new material
- HC with an augmented German sixth (vIIx6-V)

B - 8 measures;
- "uneasy" change from tonic key to dominant key;
- introduces some new ideas; develops motives from rondo cadence material
- PAC in dominant

A or A1- Rondo Theme

- 8 measures;
- in tonic key (I);
- may be ornamentally changed or incomplete
- PAC

A - 8 measures;
- in tonic key;
- PAC in tonic;
- exactly the same

A1 - 8 measures;
- in tonic key;
- harmony line switches octaves in antecedent and consequent phrases: opposite to A;
- PAC in tonic

A - 8 measures;
- in tonic key;
- PAC in tonic;
- exactly the same

C - Second Episode

C - most contrasting episode resembling a development: increased length, change of key
- may be marked by a new key signature or a change in tempo or meter
- or this episode may be a repetition of the first with variation: this is very rare;

C - only 8 measures;
- in dominant key;
- introduces new material; uses motives from rondo theme mainly for accompaniment
- a long plagal cadence (PC) in the dominant

C - only 8 measures;
- in tonic minor key introduced with a new key signature;
- introduces new motives, weaves motives from rondo theme into it
- PAC

C - 12 measures;
- functions as a development with changes from tonic key to mediant key through various key changes: F major to a minor by way of g minor, F major, d minor, g minor and C major - I-ii-I-vi-ii-V-iii;
- introduces new motives and incorporates motives from rondo theme and first episode
- PAC in mediant key

A - Rondo Theme

A - 8 measures;
- in tonic key (I);
- may be ornamentally changed or incomplete
- PAC in tonic

A1 - 8 measures;
- in tonic key;
- added ornaments in m. 37;
- PAC in tonic

A2 - 8 measures;
- in tonic key;
- articulation changes and chord position in m. 36
PAC in tonic

A1 - 8 measures;
- in tonic key;
- minor changes: different articulation in m. 37; added sixteenth notes in m. 44;
- PAC in tonic

D - Third Episode

D - like the first episode, the third episode exhibits contrasting keys
- at the same time the keys and organization contrast with previous episodes
- or the third episode transposes the first episode to the tonic

D - 16 measures: functions are similar to a traditional second episode;
- in submediant key;
- introduces some new material and weaves it together with cadential motives from rondo; eventually only the rondo motives remain
- extended cadence (mm. 53-56) is a "leading tone HC" in submediant, which is actually a true HC in tonic;
- there is also a PAC in dominant because of a temporary modulation at mm. 55-56

D - 16 measures: functions are similar to a traditional second episode;
- changes from tonic major to tonic minor by way of g minor and f minor - I-v-iv-i;
- develops new motives; intertwines with motives from the first episode; then first episodic motives are used in accompaniment to support new material;
- plagal HC in tonic beginning in m. 54 and ending in the cadenza at m. 56

D - 8 measures;
- stays in the tonic key and introduces no new material;
develops rondo thematic material with a developed motive from the second episode;
- PAC in tonic

A - Rondo Theme

A - 8 measures;
- in tonic key;
- may be ornamentally changed or incomplete
- PAC in tonic

A2 - 7.5 measures;
- in tonic key;
- m. 60 (originally m. 4) is ornamented;
- HC in tonic leading to coda

A3 - 8 measures;
- in tonic key;
- melody in consequent phrase is lowered an octave;
- DC in tonic leading to coda

A2 - 8 measures;
- in tonic key;
- minor changes: no slur in m. 53;
- DC in m. 60 leading to coda

Coda

- may introduce a new theme;
- progressions emphasize and elaborate the final tonic harmony

Coda - 8.5 measures;
- in tonic key;
new melodic motives introduced
- PAC in tonic

Coda - 8 measures;
- in tonic key;
- new melodic motives introduced; sequenced in lower octave
- PAC in tonic

Coda - 5 measures;
- in tonic key;
- material based on motives from rondo theme and second episode
- PAC in tonic

 

Copyright 2001 by Nadine J-M. Burke