Adverb Exercise

            Adverbs in the Anglo-Saxon language typically end in either -e, -līce or -unga. If the adverb ends in -an it generally carries the connation of being from. Although there are not many adverbs in this particular riddle, they are nevertheless elemental to our understanding of the puzzle's message. The adverbs are emphasized in orange to allow you to see where they are placed in the text. Because they are more straight forward than other grammatical components, I have provided a basic translation beside the original text rather than engaging in a detailed explanation of each word. You do not have to determine the case or gender of these words, but rather focus on being able to identify them within a passage. The definitions provided below can be found in any Anglo-Saxon dictionary or guidebook.

         Riddle 8   Translation
  Hrgl mīn swīgađ     onne ic hrūsan trede when
  oe ā wīc būge      oe wado drēfe.   
  Hwilum mec āhebbađ        ofer hlea byht  
  hyrste mīne      ond ēos hēa lyft,  
(5)  ond mec onne wīde wolcna strengu then [16], far
  ofer folc byređ.     Frtwe mīne  
  swōgađ hlūde    ond swinsiađ, loudly
  torhte singađ,      onne ic getenge ne [17] bēom splendidly, then,  not
  flōde ond foldan,      fērende gst.  

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[16] onne can mean either then or when. For the purposes of this riddle I think when is the best translation.

[17] As we will discuss in a later exercise, this word can also be considered a conjunction.