Further Reading and Helpful Resources

Gardner, Faith F. An Analysis of Syntactic Patterns of Old English. The Hague: Mouton, 1971.

            Discusses patterns of Old English syntax in detail. Becoming familiar with some of these patterns would benefit your translation skills.

Hacikyan Agop. A Linguistic and Literary Analysis of Old English Riddles. Montreal: Mario Casalini Ltd., 1966.

            Focuses both on the grammar and larger literary significance of the riddles. Also contains an appendix with all possible riddle solutions.

McLaughlin, John. Old English Syntax: A Handbook. Kempten (Allgäu): Max Niemeyer Verlag Tubingen, 1983.

            An excellent text which discusses in detail the grammar of Old English and includes useful comparisons to Modern English.

Rodrigues, Louis J. Anglo-Saxon Riddles. Felinfach: Llanerch Enterprises, 1990.

            A selection of the Exeter book riddles with helpful translations provided. The riddles are organized into categories such as 'natural phenomena,'             'birds,' 'weapons and fighting' etc.

Toller, T. Northcote and Joseph Bosworth. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976. The Anglo-Saxon Dictionary            Project <http://dontgohere.nu/oe/as-bt/index.htm>.

            An online version of the Bosworth-Toller dictionary but still a work-in-progress as all entries have not yet been imputed. Most university libraries             have a copy of the dictionary in their reference section. McMaster University has one copy of the dictionary available for home use, which is            very helpful if you are doing a lot of translation work off campus.  

Whitman, F.H. Old English Riddles. Ottawa: Canadian Federation for the Humanities, 1982.

           Includes translations of all the Exeter Riddles as well as an in-depth analysis of their structure and composition. Also contains an interesting            discussion of medieval riddling, as well as a section on the nature of riddle solving.

Williamson, Craig. A Feast of Creatures: Anglo-Saxon Riddle-Songs. Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982.

            A book of translations with a lengthy and interesting introduction that discusses riddling, its origins and social implications. On page fifty-one of            the introduction are different translations of the 'bookworm' riddle, allowing you to see different approaches and interpretations of the same text.      

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