Bibliographical style

For the list of references at the end of your essay, use a standard format, such as that of the Chicago Manual of Style or the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA). The following are examples of entries in APA format for a book, a journal article, and a book chapter.

Toulmin, S.E. (1958). The Uses of Argument. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Benoit, W.L. (1989). Attorney argumentation and Supreme Court opinions. Argumentation and Advocacy 26, 22-38.

Eemeren, F.H. van and R. Grootendorst (1993b). The history of the argumentum ad hominem since the seventeenth century. In: E.C.W. Krabbe, R.J. Dalitz and P.A. Smit (Eds.), Empirical Logic and Public Debate. Essays in Honour of Else M. Barth (pp. 49-68, Ch. 4), Amsterdam/Atlanta: Rodopi.

The entries in your list of references should be listed in alphabetical order of the family name of the first author. If there are several entries with the same author, they should be listed in order of date of publication.

Citations in the body of your essay

To cite a source in your essay, you should insert in parentheses the author, date and if appropriate the page number(s). Do not put such citations in footnotes or endnotes. For Kant, use the standard system of referring to the edition of his works published by the Berlin Academy. The following are some examples:

Gert claims that the kinds of actions prohibited and required by the common morality of human beings can be accounted for by ten rules (Gert 2004, p. 20). According to Mill, “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.” (Mill 2001, p. 7) Kant distinguishes hypothetical from categorical imperatives according to whether the imperative is conditional on what is desired by the person being commanded to do something (Ak 4:414).